In many countries the terms accordion and concertina were used synonymous.
In the advertisement of Heinrich Band in 1844 he remarks the ability of his 40 and 56 voice accordions to build arbitrary chords for different tonalities. Perhaps the first mention of Banoneon occurred at the late 1850's in the areas of Krefeld, Mainz and Cologne. Later, when he offered instruments with many voices he labeled them Bandonion. But the confusion persisted, also in Germany.
It finished at the end of the 1850's when the term Bandonion was introduced in the region of Krefeld, Mainz and Cologne. In Bavaria they used Concertina. In Saxony and Thuringia chromatic harmonicas, but those for export to English and French speaking countries where concertinas and from the Rhineland bandoneons. However, the latter with a distinct layout of the keyboard.
After 1860 an additional concertina keyboard system was introduced in Munich perhaps by F. Stahl first with 30 buttons, later with up to 60 buttons an similar to the system of Band. This was probably the basis for the later Bayrisches Schrammelbandonion of Strobl with 132, 136 and 180 voices.
A magazine for bandonion music established in 1895 in Leipzig was renamed after a year to Allgemeine Concertina- und Bandonion-Zeitung demonstrating the similarities among both instrument types. On the other hand, in 1895 there existed in Leipzig of 1895 about 18 bandonion clubs and no one was called concertina club while Wünsch, successor of Uhlig the inventor of the German Concertina was there a member This confirms that concertinas were called there bandonions. Wünsch himself describes in 1890:
This instrument (bandonion) is becoming more and more known so that all instruments with 88 to 260 voices are now called bandoneons.
(In this case the number of voices has to be divided by two
since instruments with double chorus (register) are meant).
In the beginning of the 20th century a distinction between the
rheinische on one side and Chemnitzer
and Karlsfelder on the other is established.
The fast propagation of the bandoneon was based on a clever marketing. Besides the distribution of the instruments labeled BANDONION in big letters forming the good visible valve plaque on front of the instrument, Heinrich Band created a merchant chain with members of his family giving lessons and distributing a huge number of chamber music arrangements and sheet music for his instrument. His is brother Johann established in 1859 a shop in Cologne. Others were founded in Mainz, Krefeld, Glasgow? and New York.
During 1868 to 1881 there existed special sections for bandoneon music. In Hofmeister's Manual of sheet music with separate divisions for harmonica, accordion and concertina. Because all the instruments were manufactured in Saxony, the factories there expanded accordingly They tried to copy Band's strategy and designed valve plaques saying CONCERTINA for the instruments they sold directly. Until the end of the century the old term harmonika had disappeared. Finally in the 1920's the shape 0 of both instrument became the same. The polygonal shaped instruments were reserved for the smaller 1 or 2-row boxes with limited number of voices. In many parts of Germany the term Concertina was displaced gradually by the newer Bandonion and both terms were interchangeable. It came to that point, when Saxons returned to their own roots and forced their Chemnitzer and Karlsfelder system. In the 20's the need of a unified system became obvious but both parties did not agree and in 1924 the Einheitskonzertina (128 voices)
besides the Einheitsbandonion (144 voices) was created.
Many attempts were made to create unisonoric instruments. Charles Péguri in Paris replaced the reed plates of 142 voice rheinische bandoneons (an Argentine extension of the 130 voice version) with unisonoric ones imprecisely called chromatic bandoneon. This fact simplified the manufacture of instruments suitable for musette players. The Kusserow bandoneon did not become as popular.
|sa||single action||sounds only on opening (draw) or (mostly) closing (pressure)|
|da||double action||sounds on opening and closing|
|us||unisonor||same note on opening and closing|
|bs||bisonor||different note on opening and closing|
|av||automatic valve||permits air pumping|
|<3000 a.C.||Chingmian||mouth organ|
|3000 a.C.||China||sheng or tshiang [sa]|
|1762||Benjamin Franklin||glass-harmonica (first use of the term harmonica)|
|1770||Kratzenstein, Denmark||speaking machine|
|17xx||Kirsnik, Denmark||organ like harmonica|
|1790||Rakwitz, Sweden||Abbé Vogler's orchestrion (transportable concert organ)|
|1806||Bernhard Eschenbach & Kaspar Schlimbach,||handaeoline (until 1840) [sa]|
|Königshofen (Bavaria)||(first reed instrument without tubes)|
|1820||Buschmann, Berlin||aura, mundaeoline (mouth organ) [sa]|
|1821||E. F. Chladni, AMZ||publishes a detailed description of the sheng|
|1821||Buschmann, Berlin||handharmonika or handaeoline (bellow on pressure) [sa]|
|1821||A. Haekl, Vienna||physharmonika [sa]|
|1824||G. A. Reinlein, Vienna||privilege for harmonicas called chinesiger|
|1825||G. A. Reinlein, Vienna||aeol-harmonica|
|1825||first printed scores||for Mundharmonika|
|1828||Hand-, Zug-, Ziehharmonika|
|1829||C. Demian, Vienna||eoline, accordion|
|1829/30||Friedrich Mehwald, AMZ||new-sheng [us, da]|
|1830||privilege, Vienna||bellow harmonica|
|> 1830||Paris||first accordion manufacture|
|1831/3||Ernst Leopold Schmidt||Apollo lyra [us, da]|
|1835||Carl Friedrich Uhlig, Chemnitz||Harmonika, later known as German Concertina|
|1836||Vienna||export of chinesiger to Gera and Leipzig|
|1839||A. Debain, Paris||orgues expressives, or harmonium|
|1839||J. Alexandre, Paris||``brevet de 10 ans'' concertina, piano-concertina|
|1839||Leclerc, Paris||mélophone [sa]|
|about 1840||Heinrich Wagner, Gera||introduces accordion manufacturing|
|1841||G. Regondi||uses mélophone for a Wheatstone concertina [sa]|
|1844||Wheatstone||proposes a double action concept and calls it concertina|
|1844||Band, Krefeld||uses accordion for a concertina|
|1846||G. Regondi||uses the term ``concertina'' for a mélophone|
|1854||Paris||mélophonorgue (derivative of accordion)|
|1856||Joh. Schmitz, Krefeld||the term bandonion created|
|1857||Hofmeister's Handbook||scores for bandonion|
|1861||Quentin de Gromard, Bruxelles||Cecilium|
|187x||A. Ferenczy, Carl Burge, Ofenpest (H)||Hungarian Mélophone|
|1890||Max Scheffler, Chemnitz||Scheffler's Konzertina 102 or 104 voices [3 rows, bs]|
|1890||Georg Mirwald, Söllitz (Bavaria)||Chromatine|
|1898||Richard Scheller, Hamburg||Symphonetta|
|1900||distinction:||bandonion = rhineisch|
|concertina = chemnitzer and karlsfelder|
|1906||Heinrich Steinfurth, Mühlheim-Broich||Piano-Bandonion [us] two paralel piano keyboards as buttons|
|1910||Richard Winkler, Hannover||Bass Bandonion|
|1912||Kahnt & Uhlmann, Altenburg (Thuringia)||Cantulia|
|1920||Hugo Stark, Rebesgrün (Vogtland)||Chromatiphon|
|1925/6||Charles Péguri, Paris||142 voice Chromatic Bandoneon [us] build by Alfred Arnold|
|1926||Georg Strobl & Sohn, München||Bayrisches Schrammelbandonion|
|1926||Otto Bergler, Erbendorf (Bavaria)||Berga-Bandonion|
|1926||Karl Mecke, Gniebendorf||Chroma-Bandonion|
|1926||Fritz Micklitz, Altenburg (Thuringia)||Harmoniphon|
|1927||Ernst Kusserow, Berlin||Kusserow Bandonion [us]|
|1928||Adolf Weber, Chemnitz||Bandonola|
|1930||Friedrich Töpel, Tripis-Oberpöllnitz||Bando-Piano using Matthey's table|